mercredi 21 novembre 2007

A detailed Outline of Chapter 10

Electronic Media Relations

I- 24/7 Television News:
The credit for the rise of television news around the world has been the growth of the Cable News Network (CNN).
The growth of cable television has created enormous new publicity placement possibilities for public relations professionals. Cable Networks offer so called "narrowcasting" opportunities for everyone.II. Handling Television Interviews:
To reach efficiency on television, executives must accept guidance from public relations professionals on how to act appropriately in front of a camera that never blinks
:1) Do prepare (key of success of broadcast appearance)
2) Do be yourself (interviews should be relaxed)
3) Do be open and honest (credibility must be established early)
4) Do be brief (avoid jargon, do summaries)
5) Do play it straight (don’t look stupid)
6) Do dress for the occasion (no colors or accessories)
7) Don't assume the interviewer is out to get you
8) Don't think everything you say will be araid
9) Don't let the interviewer dominate
10) Don't say "No comment"
11) Do stopIII. Video News Release:
- VNR have become standard tools in the practice of public relations. The best VNRs are those that cover breaking news such as a press conference or a new announcement that brodcasters would cover themselves if they had the resources.
Before VNR is attempted, different questions must be considered: what reasonable expectation of a VNR? How should a VNR be distributed? Are you out of luck if a VNR doesn’t get picked up? How important is it to localize a VNR? What kinds of subject should a VNR treat?IV. Satellite Media Tours:Several steps must be taken to ensure the viability of an SMT: Defining objectives Last minute jugglingsatellite time B-roll: background footage Availability of deddicated phone lines Spokespersons briefing Consider controversyavoid becoming too commercialV. Public Service announcements:
Public Service announcements (PSA) is a television or radio commercial, usually 10 to 60 seconds that is broadcasted at no cost to the sponsor.
Users of PSA are: non profit organizations and commercial organizations. PSAs can be grouped loosely into three categories:
1. public affairs
2. Public Relations
3. Marketing communicationsVI.
Growth of Talk Radio:Talk radio really emerged in the 1987 repeal of the Fairness doctrine, which opened the door to uninhibited discussion of controversial issues on the radio.
1) Strong focused message
2) Localization
3) Positive spokespersons
4) Timeliness

A detailed Outline of chapter 5

I- Essential First Step
1- Management today demands more measurement, analysis, and evaluation at every stage of the public relations process
2- Companies don't want to spend money unless it enhances results, public relations programs must contribute to meeting business objectives
3- Research must be applied to help segment market targets
a- Analyze audience preferences and dislikes, and determine which messages might be most effective with various audiences
4- Research should be applied in public relations work both at the initial stage, prior to planning a campaign, and at the final stage to evaluate a program's effectiveness
II- What is research
1- Research is the systematic collection and interpretation of information to increase understanding.
2- A firm must acquire enough accurate, relevant data about its publics, products, and programs
III- Principles of Public Relations Research
1- Seven guiding principles in setting standards for Public Relations research
a- Establishing clear program objectives and desired outcomes
b- Differentiating between measuring public relations outputs and measuring public relations outcomes
c- Measuring media content
d- Understanding that no technique can be expected to evaluate public relations effectively
e- Comparing public relations effectiveness with advertising effectiveness
f- Clearly identified key messages, target audiences, and desired channels
IV- Types of Public Relations Research
1- Applied research
a- Strategic Research
b- Evaluative research
2- Theoretical Research
a- It helps build theories in public relations work about why people communicate, how public opinion is formed, and how a public is created
3- Secondary Research
a- It allows you to examine or read about and learn from someone else's primary research
b- It s also called "desk research," it uses data that have been collected for other purposes than your own
V- Methods of Public Relations Research
1- Surveys
a- Descriptive surveys: offer a snapshot of a current situation or condition
b- Explanatory survey are concerned with cause and effect
c- Surveys consist of four elements: Sample, questionnaire, interview, and analysis of results
2- The Sample
a- Selected target group, must be representative of the total public whose views are sought
3- Random Sampling
a- Two properties are essential (equality and independence)
Equality: means that no element has any greater or lesser chance of being selected.
Independence: means that selecting any one element in no way influences the selection of any other element
b- Simple random sampling: gives to all members of he population an equal chance of being selected
c- Systematic random sampling: is closely related to simple random sampling, but it uses a random starting point in the in the sample list
d- Stratified random sampling: surveying different segments or strata of the population
e- Cluster sampling: involves first breaking the population down into small heterogeneous subsets, or clusters
4- Nonrandom Sampling
a- Convenience samples: designed to elicit ideas and points of view
b- Quota samples: permit the researcher to choose subjects on the basis of certain characteristics
c- Volunteer samples: use willing participants who agree voluntarily to respond to questions
5- The questionnaire
a- Keep it short
b- Use structured rather than open-ended questions
c- Measure intensity of feelings
d- Don't use fancy words or words that have more than one meaning
e- Don't ask loaded questions
f- Don't ask double barreled questions
g- Pretest
h- Attach a letter explaining how important the respondents' answer are, and let recipients know that they will remain anonymous
i- Hand Stamp the envelops, preferably with unique commemorative stamps
j- Follow up your first mailing
k- Send out more questionnaires than you think necessary
l- Enclose a reward
6- Interviews
a- Interviews can provide a more personal, firsthand feel for public opinion
7- Focus Groups: they should be organized with the following guidelines
a- Define your objectives and audience
b- Recruit your groups
c- Choose the right moderator
d- Conduct enough focus groups
e- Use a discussion guide
f- Choose proper facilities
g- Keep a tight rein on observers
h- Consider using outside help
8- Telephone Interviews: telephone interviews suffer from a high refusal rate
9- Mail interviews: suffers from a low response rate
10- Drop-off interviews: it combines face to face and mail interview techniques
11- Intercept Interviews: this approach is popular in consumer surveys
12- Delphi panels: qualitative research tool that uses opinion leaders
13- Internet interviews: it constituent publics via the internet
14- Results analysis

A detailed Outline of chapter 4

Kaoutar Kaddouri
COM 4301
Dr. Ibahrine
Fall 2007

I- Management process of Public Relations: Managers insists on results
1- The best public relations program can be measured in terms
of achieving results in building the key relationships on which the organization depends
2- James Grunig and Todd Hunt: public relations managers perform what organizational theorist call a boundary role in other words they function at the edge of an organization as a liaison between the organization and its external and internal publics.
3- Public Relations people support their colleagues by helping them communicate across organizational lines both within and outside the organization.
4- Top managers are forced to think strategically about reaching their goals, and public relations professionals think in terms of the strategic process element of their own roles.
II- Reporting to Top Management: Public Relations function, by definition, should report to top management
1- In many organizations public relations is often subordinated to advertising, marketing, legal, or human resources
a- For public relations function to be valuable to management, it must remain independent, credible, and objective.
b- Public relation should be the corporate conscience: an organization's public relations professionals should enjoy enough autonomy to deal openly and honestly with management.
III- Conceptualizing the Public Relations Plan
1- Planning is critical not only to know where a particular campaign is headed but also to win the support of top management
a- With proper planning, public relations professionals can indeed defend an account for their actions.
2- Before organizing for public relations work, practitioners must consider objectives and strategies, planning and budget, and research and evaluation.
3- Public Relations management process involves four steps:
a- defining the problem or opportunity
b- programming
c- Action
d- Evaluation
IV- Creating the Public Relations Plan
1- The organization must answer management's concerns ad questions about the campaign being recommended:
a- Executive summary
b- Communication process
c- Background
d- Situation analysis
e- Message statement
f- Audiences
g- Key audience messages
h- Implementation
i- Budget
j- Monitoring and evaluation
2- Five part Public Relations plan for the fictional Fribbert's Frosty Frappacino:
a- Situation
b- Business objectives
c- Public Relations Objectives
d- Strategies
e- Public Relations Program elements
V- Activating the Public Relations Campaign
1- Four part Skeleton of Public Relations campaign plan:
a- Backgrounding the problem
b- Preparing the proposal
c- Implementing the plan
d- Evaluating the campaign
VI- Setting Public Relations Objectives
1- An organization must define what its public relations goals will be and the only good goals are the ones that can be measured
2- Strategies are the most crucial decisions of a public relations campaign
a- Strategies answer how will we manage our resources to achieve our goals
b- Public Relations professional are managing by objectives and results to help quantify the value of public relations in an organization
c- Key to using MBO effectively in public relations work can be broken down into seven critical steps:
a- Defining the nature and mission of the work
b- Determining key result areas in terms of time, effort, and personnel
c- Identifying measurable factors
d- Setting objectives or determining results to be achieved
e- Preparing tactical plans to achieve specific objectives
f- Establishing rules and regulations to follow
g- Establishing procedures to handle the work
VII- Budgeting for Public Relations
1- Key to budgeting lies in performing two steps:
a- estimating the extent of resources
b- estimating the cost ad availability of those resources
VIII- Implementing Public Relations Programs
1- Public relations duties are:
a- Media relations, Internal Communication, Government relations and public affairs, Community relations, Investor relations, Customer relations, Public Relations research, Public relations writing, Special publics relations, Institutional advertising, Graphics, Web site management, Philanthropy, Special events, management counseling
IX- The public Relations department
1- Public Relations generally work in one or two organizational structures
a- as a staff professional in a public relations department
b- as a line professional in a public relations agency
2- Departments range from one-person operations to far-flung networks of hundreds of people.
3- Today half of all corporate communication departments report to the chairman, president, and/or CEO
X- The public Relations Agency
1- the biggest difference between an external agency and an internal department is perspective
2- Agencies organize according to industry groupings
3- The difficult part of agency work is not attracting clients but retaining them.
XI- Reputation Management
1- Reputation management is helping the organization manage the reputation of its brand, position, goodwill, or image
2- Organization reputation is composed of two elements
a- Rational: products ad performance
b- Emotional: behavioral factors such as customer service, CEO performance
3- Reputations matter because a company with good reputation can charge premium prices, have greater access to new markets and products etc
4- Reputation management: "the ability to link reputation to business goals to increase support and advocacy and increase organizational success through profits, contributions, attendance"
5- Reputation managers attempt to:
a- Persuade consumers to recommend and buy their products
b- Persuade investors to invest in their organization
c- Persuade competent job seekers to enlist as employees
d- Persuade other strong organizations to joint venture with them
e- Persuade people to support the organization when it is attacked

dimanche 9 septembre 2007

A detailed Outline of chapter 3

Kaoutar Kaddouri
COM 4301
Dr. Ibahrine
Fall 2007

A detailed Outline of chapter 3

*Public Opinion*

I- What is Public Opinion?
1- Joseph Kraft called public opinion "The unknown god to which moderns burn incense.
2- Edward Bernays called it "a term describing an ill-defined, mercurial, and changeable group of individual judgments
3- Herman C.Boyle: "Public opinion is not the name of something, but the classification of number of somethings"
4- Public opinion is splits into two groups public and opinion
a- Public: means a group of people who share a common interest in a specific subject.
b- Opinion: the expression of an attitude on a particular topic.
5- Public opinion is the aggregate of many individual opinions on a particular issue that affect a group of people.
II- What are attitudes?
1- Attitudes are evaluations people make about specific problems or issues.
2- Attitudes are based on a number of characters.
a- Personal
b- Cultural
c- Educational
d- Familial
e- Religious
f- Social Class
g- Race
III- How are attitudes influenced?
1- Attitudes are positive, negative, or nonexistent
2- Leon Festinger: Theory of cognitive dissonance
a- People tend to avoid information that is dissonant or opposed to their own points of view and tend to seek information that is consonant with or in support of their own attitudes.
3- Social Judgment theory: people may have a range of opinions on a certain subject, anchored by a clear attitude
a- The anchore position can be changed communications can work within this range: Latitude acceptance to modify person's opinion.
4- The objective of public relations practitioner is to win support through clear, thoughtful, and persuasive communication.
IV- Motivating Attitudes Change
1- People are motivated by different factors
2- Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory defines the origins of motivation
a- Physiological needs
b- Safety needs
c- Love needs
d- Esteem
e- Self actualization
3- Elaboration Likeli-hood model: Two ways in which people get persuaded
a- When we are interested and focused enough on a message to take a direct central route to decision making
b- When we are not particularly engaged on a message and need to take a more peripheral route
4- The best way to motivate interested people is with arguments that are: strong, logical, and personally relevant
5- The Best way to motivate less interested people through: putting them in better mood, demonstrating through speech or clothes or mannerism
V- Power of persuasion
1- Persuasion means getting another person to do something through advice, reasoning, or just plain arm twisting
2- Classic persuasion theory: People may be of two minds in order to be persuaded to believe in a particular position or take a specific action
a- systematic; referring to a person who has carefully considered an argument actively, creatively, and alertly
b- Heuristic: a person who is skimming the surface and not focusing on the intricacies of a particular position
3- Evidence is needed if you want to influence people and it must coincide with their own beliefs, emotions, and expectations, for example:
a- Facts
b- Emotions
c- Personalizing
d- Appealing to
VI- Influencing Public Opinion
1- Opinion is highly sensitive to important events
2- Opinion is generally determined more by events than by words - unless those words are themselves interpreted as an event
3- At critical times, people become more sensitive to the adequacy of their leadership
4- Once self-interest is involved, opinions are slow to change
5- People have more opinions and are able to form opinions more easily on goals than on methods to reach those goals.
6- By and large, if people in a democracy are provided with educational opportunities and ready access to information, public opinion reveals a hardheaded common sense.
VII- Polishing the corporate Image
1- Organizations today and the people who manage them are extremely sensitive to the way they are perceived by their critical publics
a- Organizations understand that corporate image is a fragile commodity, to improve it they must operate with the implicit trust of the public.
VIII- Managing Reputation
1- Reputation is present throughout our lives and has become a buzzword in public relations and in the broader society.
2- Relationship management aligns communications with an organization's character and action
a- It creates recognition, credibility and trust among key constituents.
b- It stays sensitive to its conduct in public with customers and in private with employees
c- It understands its responsibilities to the broader society and is empathetic to society's needs.

mercredi 5 septembre 2007

Detailed Outline of Chapter2

Kaoutar Kaddouri
COM 4301
Dr. Ibahrine
Fall 2007

A detailed Outline of chapter 2


I- Goals of Communication
1- Every communication must have a goal, an objective, a purpose.
a- To inform
b- To persuade
c- To motivate
d- To build mutual understanding
II- Traditional Theories of Communication
1- Many theories emerged about the effective ways for a source to send message.
a- The two step flow theory
b- The concentric –Circle theory
c- Pat Jackson
2- Behavioral change encompassed a five-step process:
a- building awareness
b- Developing a latent readiness
c- Triggering event
d- Intermediate behavior
e- Behavioral Change
3- S-E-M-D-R Communication Process
a- Communication process begin with a source
b- Who issues the message to a receiver
c- Who decides what actions to take
d- Encoding stage
e- Decoding stage
III- Contemporary theories of communication
1- Audience Centric theories
a- Constructivism
b- Coordinated management of meaning
2- Grunig-Hunt public relations models
a- press agentry/ publicity
b- public information
c- Two way asymmetric
d- Two way symmetric
IV- The Word
1- The study of what words mean: Semantics
2- Discriminatory language
3- Influence of words on the message conveyed to the receiver
4- Words are used to build messages
5- Different theories on the constitution of the message
a- The content is the message
b- The medium is the message
c- The man- or, to avoid political incorrectness, the person-is the message
V- Receivers bias
1- perception of messages
a- Stereotypes
b- Symbols
c- Semantics
d- Peer Groups
e- Media
VI- Feedback
1- Messages in Communication triggers different meanings
a- It may change attitudes
b- It may crystallize attitudes
c- It may create a wedge of doubt
d- It may do nothing

Detailed Outline of Chapter1

Kaoutar Kaddouri
COM 4301
Dr. Ibahrine
Fall 2007

A detailed Outline of Chapter I

What Is Public Relations, Anyway?

I- Prominence of Public Relations
1- Position of public relations people in society
2- Public Relations field is facing a serious competition from other fields.
3- The strengths of the field of Public Relations.
4- What Is Public Relations?
a- Different definitions of Public Relations.
II- Planned Process to Influence Public Opinion
1- Research.
2- Action
3- Communication
4- Evaluation
5- Definition of public relations: Management and Action
6- Melvin Sharpe definition of the process of Public Relations
a- Honest communication for credibility
b- Openness and consistency of actions for confidence
c- Fairness of actions for reciprocity and goodwill
d- Continuous two-way communication
e- Environmental research and evaluation
III- Public Relations as Management Interpreter
1- Every organization has public relations
2- Public Relations affect anyone who has contact with other human beings.
3- The role of management to have good public relations.
IV- Public Relations as Public Interpreter
1- the importance of interpreting in the management of an organization
2- policies and practices to the public
3- interpretation of public views of the organization
a- Internal and External
b- Primary, secondary, and marginal
c- Traditional and future
d- Proponents, opponents, and the uncommitted
4- Segmentation of publics based on values and lifestyles
a- Actualizers
b- Fulfilleds
c- Believers
d- Achievers
e- Strivers
f- Experiencers
g- Makers
k- Strugglers
V- The Functions of Public Relations
1- Writing
2- Media Relations
3- Planning
4- Counseling
5- Researching
6- Publicity
7- Marketing Communications
8- Community Relations
9- Consumer Relations
10- Employee Relations
11- Government affairs
12- Investor Relations
13- Public affairs and issues management
14- Web site development and web interface
VI- The Curse of "Spin"
1- Definition of Spin
2- The notion of spinning the facts.
VII- What Manner of Man or Woman?
1- Talking Points
a- The Scanlon Scandal and the Problem with Public Relations
VIII- Top of the Shelf
1- Public Relations: The Complete Guide
2- Case Study: The Rise and Fall and Rise of Queen Martha.
IX- Voice of Authority
1- An interview with Harold Burson